Lyell entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1816, and attended William Buckland's geological lectures. Facts about Charles Lyell 7: the date and place of birth Lyell was born in Scotland on 14 November 1797. I left this rather to be inferred, not thinking it worth while to offend a certain class of persons by embodying in words what would only be a speculation. Lyell's grandfather, also Charles Lyell, had made the family fortune supplying the Royal Navy at Montrose, enabling him to buy Kinnordy House. "[29] Lyell inaccurately portrayed Lamarckism as a response to the fossil record, and said it was falsified by a lack of progress. [7] He was, along with the earlier John Playfair, the major advocate of James Hutton's idea of uniformitarianism, that the earth was shaped entirely by slow-moving forces still in operation today, acting over a very long period of time. In letters digitised by the University of Cambridge there are multiple correspondences between Darwin and Lyell. They even spent their honeymoon in Switzerland and Italy on a geological tour of the area. The eldest of 10 children, he attended several private schools throughout his early life. In 1816, Charles went to Oxford University to study classics but also attended geology lectures by William Buckland. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. He had particular difficulty in believing in natural selection as the main motive force in evolution.[37][38][39]. This was in contrast to catastrophism, an idea of abrupt geological changes, which had been adapted in England to explain landscape features—such as rivers much smaller than their associated valleys—that seemed impossible to explain other than through violent action. In 1866, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Captain Fitzroy of the HMS Beagle gave Darwin the first volume of Lyell’s Principles of Geology, a work that heavily influenced him. Lyell's father, also named Charles Lyell, was noted as a translator and scholar of Dante. Learn how your comment data is processed. Shirburn Castle, the seat of the Earl of Macclesfield, is surrounded by a moat, over which is a drawbridge; it contains a noble hall, an armoury, and a suite of splendid apartments, with a fine collection of painting… The surname Lyell was first found in Oxfordshire at Shirburn, a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Pirton. As Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species, "He who can read Sir Charles Lyell's grand work on the Principles of Geology, which the future historian will recognise as having produced a revolution in natural science, yet does not admit how incomprehensibly vast have been the past periods of time, may at once close this volume. Sedgwick wrote worried letters to him about this. Neurotree: academic genealogy for researcher Adding trainee for Charles Lyell Type a name and select match from the drop-down list. While in South America Darwin received Volume 2 which considered the ideas of Lamarck in some detail. Charles spent much of his childhood at the family’s other home, Bartley Lodge in the New Forest, England, where his interest in the natural world was sparked. Lyell was born into a wealthy family, on 14 November 1797, at the family's estate house, Kinnordy House, near Kirriemuir in Forfarshire. [15][16] Lyell used each edition to incorporate additional material, rearrange existing material, and revisit old conclusions in light of new evidence. British geologist and author of Principles of Geology, which popularized the concept of uniformitarianism. in the margin of his copy. "This place was the property of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and passed to Alice, wife of Warine de L'lsle, whose descendant of the same name obtained from Edward III. His studies focussed on mosses with several species of these plants being named after him. It’s that time of the year again, when we come together with friends and family to share in the festivities. ( Log Out /  He drew his explanations from field studies conducted directly before he went to work on the founding geology text. He graduated with a BA Hons. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1858 and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society in 1866. He was one of the first scientists to postulate that the earth is older than 200 million years, which was the commonly accepted notion during the 19th century. Around 1826, when he was on circuit, he read Lamarck's Zoological Philosophy and on 2 March 1827 wrote to Mantell, expressing admiration, but cautioning that he read it "rather as I hear an advocate on the wrong side, to know what can be made of the case in good hands". The second volume dismissed Lamarck's claims of animal forms arising from habits, continuous spontaneous generation of new life, and man having evolved from lower forms. He was Charles Darwin’s closest friend. These were essential to the development of his ideas, and provide a unique record of his travels, conversations, correspondence, reading and field observations. Lyell's wife died in 1873, and two years later (in 1875) Lyell himself died as he was revising the twelfth edition of Principles. So I thought it would be wonderful to find out about the family and friends of Charles Lyell. Later he studied at the ‘Exeter College’, Oxford from 1816 to 1819, graduating BA second in classics. 莱尔出生于苏格兰,是家里十个小孩中的老大。莱尔的父亲也叫做查尔斯,是个略有一点名气的植物学家,他也是第一个让小查尔斯接触到自然博物学的人。莱尔在牛津大学的埃克塞特学院的学业… He discussed the geographical distribution of plants and animals, and proposed that every species of plant or animal was descended from a pair or individual, originated in response to differing external conditions. He was the eldest of ten children. Geology, it was affirmed, could never arise to the rank of an exact science... [With catastrophism] we see the ancient spirit of speculation revived, and a desire manifestly shown to cut, rather than patiently untie, the Gordian Knot.-Sir Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, 1854 edition, p.196; quoted by Stephen Jay Gould.[22]. His father and grandfather, being admired and respected doctors, Charles grew up in a well-educated and freethinking family… First published in 1863, it went through three editions that year, with a fourth and final edition appearing in 1873. However, as discussed below, many of his letters show he was fairly open to the idea of evolution. Born to a wealthy gentry family in Scotland in 1797, Lyell had a classical and legal education but by the 1820s had become entranced by the popular and exciting subject of geology. In Principles of Geology (first edition, vol. He was the eldest of ten children. second class degree in classics, in December 1819, and gained his M.A. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The student was taught to despond from the first. It is impossible to read their letters and not know they are friends. Oxford University Museum of Natural History Blog, Posted on 21 December 201611 September 2018. Change ). [1] The combination of evidence and eloquence in Principles convinced a wide range of readers of the significance of "deep time" for understanding the Earth and environment. In stratigraphy his division of the Tertiary period into the Pliocene, Miocene, and Eocene was highly influential. [43], Quite strong remarks: no doubt Darwin resented Lyell's repeated suggestion that he owed a lot to Lamarck, whom he (Darwin) had always specifically rejected. On the return of the Beagle (October 1836) Lyell invited Darwin to dinner and from then on they were close friends. He was said to have great taste in literature and even published a translation of The Canzoniere of Dante. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology (1830–33), which presented to a wide public audience the idea that Earth was shaped by the same natural processes still in operation today, operating at similar intensities. The Life of Charles Lyell When Charles Lyell Campbell was born on 25 February 1914, in Groom, Carson, Texas, United States, his father, Charles Leslie Campbell, was 27 and his mother, Bertha Myrtle Gravitt, was 24. Darwin's daughter Henrietta (Etty) wrote to her father: "Is it fair that Lyell always calls your theory a modification of Lamarck's?" "[31], In the first edition of Principles, the first volume briefly set out Lyell's concept of a steady state with no real progression of fossils. In 1821 he attended Robert Jameson's lectures in Edinburgh, and visited Gideon Mantell at Lewes, in Sussex. From May 1828, until February 1829, he travelled with Roderick Impey Murchison (1792–1871) to the south of France (Auvergne volcanic district) and to Italy. All three went through multiple editions during his lifetime, although many of his friends (such as Darwin) thought the first edition of the Principles was the best written. Lyell and Hooker were instrumental in arranging the peaceful co-publication of the theory of natural selection by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858: each had arrived at the theory independently. [17] It was a work of synthesis, backed by his own personal observations on his travels. When the iceberg melts, it rains down sediments upon the land. During the 1840s, Lyell travelled to the United States and Canada, and wrote two popular travel-and-geology books: Travels in North America (1845) and A Second Visit to the United States (1849). Whewell subsequently questioned this topic, and in March 1837 Lyell told him:[19], As a result of his letters and, no doubt, personal conversations, Huxley and Haeckel were convinced that, at the time he wrote Principles, he believed new species had arisen by natural methods. Charles Lyell’s father, also named Charles Lyell, gave up law as a profession after a considerable inheritance to concentrate on botany (the study of plants). Round the house, in the strath, is good farmland, but within a short distance to the north-west, on the other side of the fault, are the Grampian Mountains in the Highlands. […] Researching this led me to finding all about the Sowerby family as well as some of Lyell’s other friends and family. [6] The systematic, factual description of geological formations of different ages contained in Principles grew so unwieldy, however, that Lyell split it off as the Elements in 1838. Furthermore, Lyell believed that the accumulation of fine angular particles covering much of the world (today called loess) was a deposit settled from mountain flood water. I have always loved how some of Lyell’s fossils show predator/prey relationships and so […]. From 1830 onward his books provided both income and fame. [4] He was a close friend of Charles Darwin, and contributed significantly to Darwin's thinking on the processes involved in evolution. Charles Lyell - Bio, Facts, Family Famous Birthday Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology is still known today as one of the most influential books concerning the science of Geology . He later published evidence from geology of the time man had existed on Earth. The fragmentary fossil record already showed "a high class of fishes, close to reptiles" in the Carboniferous period which he called "the first Zoological era", and quadrupeds could also have existed then. After a horrible carriage accident left Mantell crippled he started taking opium as a painkiller. Charles Darwin, arguably one of the most well-known names in science, was a friend of Charles Lyell. They were partners in science, with Mary accompanying Charles on field trips. [8][9] He is buried in Westminster Abbey where there is a bust to him by William Theed in the north aisle. Lyell's interpretation of geological change as the steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long spans of time was a powerful influence on the young Charles Darwin. Gideon Mantell. Accessed from here on 20 December 2016. If no match exists, you will be prompted to add a new person to the tree. Elements of Geology began as the fourth volume of the third edition of Principles: Lyell intended the book to act as a suitable field guide for students of geology. Mary Horner was Charles Lyell’s wife. Lyell's work on volcanoes focused largely on Vesuvius and Etna, both of which he had earlier studied. She assisted him by sketching geological drawings, and cataloguing their collections. Childhood & Early Life He was born on November 17, 1797 to Charles Lyell, the son of a wealthy gentleman who inherited a large estate in Scotland. He grew up in the New Forest in Hampshire where, encouraged by his father, he developed a keen interest in natural history. [7][42] The Antiquity of Man (published in early February 1863, just before Huxley's Man's place in nature) drew these comments from Darwin to Huxley: "I am fearfully disappointed at Lyell's excessive caution" and "The book is a mere 'digest'". Based on this the third volume of his Principles of Geology, published in 1833, proposed dividing the Tertiary period into four parts, which he named the Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Recent. [Plate 6] C HARLES LYELL was born on I4 November, I797, at Kinnordy, the family estate in … ( Log Out /  Charles Lyell, 3rd Baron Lyell. Lyell’s correspondence includes letters between Lyell family members from as early as 1806 (when Charles Lyell was only 9 years old), as well as over 640 letters received by Charles Lyell between 1829 and 1874. In the little free time he had he pursued geology, which was a childhood passion. [7] By 1827, he had abandoned law and embarked on a geological career that would result in fame and the general acceptance of uniformitarianism, a working out of the ideas proposed by James Hutton a few decades earlier. He died, possibly from an overdose, in November 1852. Lyell and Darwin first met on 29th October 1836. [6][7] After graduation he took up law as a profession, entering Lincoln's Inn in 1820. His family's second country home was in a completely different geological and ecological area: he spent much of his childhood at Bartley Lodge in the New Forest, in Hampshire in southern England. Lyell rejected Lamarck's idea of organic evolution, proposing instead "Centres of Creation" to explain diversity and territory of species. Charles Lyell was born on November 14, 1797, in the Grampian Mountains near Forfarshire, Scotland. Charles Lyell was born on the 14 of November [19] In geology Darwin was very much Lyell's disciple, and brought back observations and his own original theorising, including ideas about the formation of atolls, which supported Lyell's uniformitarianism. She, like him, was a conchologist and geologist, and she made major contributions to her husband’s work. He lived in Wekiwa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States in 1920. He continued to be a close personal friend, and Lyell was one of the first scientists to support On the Origin of Species, though he did not subscribe to all its contents. Lyell reconciled transmutation of species with natural theology by suggesting that it would be as much a "remarkable manifestation of creative Power" as creating each species separately. Charles Lyell war das älteste von zehn Kindern. "[18] Geological remains from the distant past can, and should, be explained by reference to geological processes now in operation and thus directly observable. His father (1767-1849) was known both as a botanist and as the translator of the Vita Nuova and the Convito of Dante: the plant Lyellia was named after him. During his early childhood, the family moved to Lyndhurst, Hampshire, where he received his early education. [13] The jawless fish Cephalaspis lyelli, from the Old Red Sandstone of southern Scotland, was named by Louis Agassiz in honour of Lyell.[14]. Lyell was a key figure in establishing the classification of more recent geological deposits, long known as the Tertiary period. Kinnordy House was owned by the Ogilvy family in the 1700s, but was put up for sale in 1780 and sold in 1782 to Charles Lyell, an entrepreneur who made a fortune supplying the Royal Navy at Montrose. British geologist, the eldest son of Charles Lyell of Kinnordy, Forfarshire, and born on the 14th of November 1797, on the family estate in Scotland. LYELL, SIR CHARLES (1797-1875), British geologist, was the eldest son of Charles Lyell of Kinnordy, Forfarshire, and was born on the 14th of November 1797, on the family estate in Scotland. His conclusions supported gradual building of volcanoes, so-called "backed up-building",[6] as opposed to the upheaval argument supported by other geologists. Lyell's views on gradual change and the power of a long time scale were important because Darwin thought that populations of an organism changed very slowly. 2, 1833)[8] Lyell proposed that icebergs could be the means of transport for erratics. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. One of the contributions that Lyell made in Principles was to explain the cause of earthquakes. Lyells gleichnamiger Vater, der Botaniker Charles Lyell, sorgte dafür, dass sein Sohn sich frühzeitig mit Naturwissenschaften auseinandersetzte. Lyell saw himself as "the spiritual saviour of geology, freeing the science from the old dispensation of Moses. In 1823 he was elected joint secretary of the Geological Society. [20], Lyell's geological interests ranged from volcanoes and geological dynamics through stratigraphy, palaeontology, and glaciology to topics that would now be classified as prehistoric archaeology and paleoanthropology. He is best known, however, for his role in elaborating the doctrine of uniformitarianism. This generous support began with the original archival donation from the Lyell family in 1927. [2], Lyell's scientific contributions included a pioneering explanation of climate change, in which shifting boundaries between oceans and continents could be used to explain long-term variations in temperature and rainfall. Joseph Dalton Hooker. Accessed from here on 20 December 2016. In 1832, Lyell married Mary Horner in Bonn, daughter of Leonard Horner (1785–1864), also associated with the Geological Society of London. Lyell's wife died in 1873, and two years later (in 1875) Lyell himself died as he was revising the twelfth edition of Principles. This inner struggle has been much commented on. Lyell had private means, and earned further income as an author. An accomplished botanist, it was he who first exposed his son to the study of nature. As his eyesight began to deteriorate, he turned to geology as a full-time profession. [25] Lyell, in contrast focused on recent earthquakes (150 yrs), evidenced by surface irregularities such as faults, fissures, stratigraphic displacements and depressions.[25]. The new couple spent their honeymoon in Switzerland and Italy on a geological tour of the area.[8]. She, like him, was a conchologist and geologist, and she made major contributions to her husband’s work. Lyell was born into a wealthy family, on 14 November 1797, at the family's estate house, Kinnordy House, near Kirriemuir in Forfarshire. In various revised editions (12 in all, through 1872), Principles of Geology was the most influential geological work in the middle of the 19th century, and did much to put geology on a modern footing. Lyell asked Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, to search for erratic boulders on the survey voyage of the Beagle, and just before it set out FitzRoy gave Darwin Volume 1 of the first edition of Lyell's Principles. Charles Lyell Birthdate: estimated between 1735 and 1795 Death: Immediate Family: Father of Sir Charles Lyell, 1st bart., FRS and Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Lyell … So, in endorsing surveys, as well as advancing the study of geology, Lyell helped to forward the business of modern extractive industries, such as the coal and oil industry. From 1830 to 1833 his multi-volume Principles of Geology was published. After the Great Chicago Fire in 1871, Lyell was one of the first to donate books to help found the Chicago Public Library. He encouraged Darwin to publish, and following the 1859 publication of On the Origin of Species, Lyell finally offered a tepid endorsement of evolution in the tenth edition of Principles. Lyell's grandfather, also Charles Lyell, had made the family fortune supplying the Royal Navy at Montrose, enabling him to buy Kinnordy House. Although Darwin discussed evolutionary ideas with him from 1842, Lyell continued to reject evolution in each of the first nine editions of the Principles. They had one son, who became Charles Lyell, 3rd Baron Lyell. The central argument in Principles was that the present is the key to the past – a concept of the Scottish Enlightenment which David Hume had stated as "all inferences from experience suppose ... that the future will resemble the past", and James Hutton had described when he wrote in 1788 that "from what has actually been, we have data for concluding with regard to that which is to happen thereafter. I2I CHARLES LYELL, F.R.S. It sold well, and it "shattered the tacit agreement that mankind should be the sole preserve of theologians and historians". [36], By the time Darwin returned from the Beagle survey expedition in 1836, he had begun to doubt Lyell's ideas about the permanence of species. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In Southwest Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand, the Lyell Range, Lyell River and the gold mining town of Lyell (now only a camping site) were all named after Lyell. [7] His observational methods and general analytical framework remain in use today as foundational principles in geology. [7], Lyell initially accepted the conventional view of other men of science, that the fossil record indicated a directional geohistory in which species went extinct. Gideon Mantell is renowned for his work on Iguanodon, reconstructing its structure and life habits. Building on the innovative work of James Hutton and his follower John Playfair, Lyell favoured an indefinitely long age for the Earth, despite evidence suggesting an old but finite age. During periods of global warming, ice breaks off the poles and floats across submerged continents, carrying debris with it, he conjectured. He said in the second volume of Principles that the occurrence of this one fossil of the higher mammalia "in these ancient strata, is as fatal to the theory of successive development, as if several hundreds had been discovered. The work's subtitle was "An attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation", and this explains Lyell's impact on science. [7] His first paper, "On a recent formation of freshwater limestone in Forfarshire", was presented in 1822. They were partners in science, with Mary accompanying Charles on field trips. Lyell, a highly religious man with a strong belief in the special status of human reason, had great difficulty reconciling his beliefs with natural selection. There were 10 kids in the family and he was the eldest one. Charles Lyell was born in 1767, to Charles Lyell and Mary Lyell (born Beale). Education: Schools at Ringwood, Salisbury and Midhurst. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. He came from a prosperous family, worked briefly as a lawyer in the 1820s, and held the post of Professor of Geology at King's College London in the 1830s. First published in three volumes in 1830–33, it established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist and propounded the doctrine of uniformitarianism. He countered Lamarck's views by rejecting continued cooling of the Earth in favour of "a fluctuating cycle", a long-term steady-state geohistory as proposed by James Hutton. Darwin requests that Lyell send him news about himself and his wife, as well as asking Lyell for his wife’s opinions to discover what she would find least troublesome. Charles Darwin. Species would regularly go extinct, in a "struggle for existence" between hybrids, or a "war one with another" due to population pressure. :[29], He struggled with the implications for human dignity, and later in 1827 wrote private notes on Lamarck's ideas. [20], For other people named Charles Lyell, see, Presidents of the Geological Society of London, Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man, "The Present is the Key to the Past is the Key to the Future", "Lyell and evolution: an account of Lyell's response to the prospect of an evolutionary ancestry for man", Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Lyell&oldid=1011377318, Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class), Baronets in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Lyell Fork, one of two large forks of the, This page was last edited on 10 March 2021, at 15:38.