Het ligt buiten het gebied en het bereik van het denken – met de woorden van Mandukya,[17] ‘ondenkbaar en onuitsprekelijk’. In 1986 the SPR admitted this to be the case and retracted the findings of the report. James Hutton en daarna Charles Lyell hadden de geologische ouderdom van de aarde honderden miljoenen jaren verder gezet. [336], Since its inception, and through doctrinal assimilation or divergence, Theosophy has also given rise to or influenced the development of other mystical, philosophical, and religious movements. [202] In private letters, Blavatsky expressed relief that the criticism was focused on her and that the identity of the Masters had not been publicly exposed. Theosophical History: A Quarterly Journal of Research, XIX(4), 2nd ser., 158-171. [303], Goodrick-Clarke noted that Blavatsky's cosmology contained all four of the prime characteristics of Western esotericism that had been identified by the scholar Antoine Faivre: "(a) correspondences between all parts of the universe, the macrocosm and microcosm; (b) living nature as a complex, plural, hierarchical, and animate whole; (c) imagination and mediations in the form of intermediary spirits, symbols, and mandalas; and (d) the experience of transmutation of the soul through purification and ascent. Consequently I felt obliged to give some of her history in order to bring some perspective into her rather dubious credentials. In die ruimte was een schrijn gewijd aan de Mahatma's, waar zich frequent de Mahatmabrieven materialiseerden. II. [365], The underlying theme among these diverse topics [in. {Philip S. Harris, ed., Theosophical Encyclopedia. [230] The date would come to be commemorated by Theosophists ever since as White Lotus Day. In de herfst van 1884 verbleef Blavatsky acht weken bij consul Gustav en Mary Gebhard in Elberfeld. De redenen voor dit huwelijk zijn van de zijde van Blavatsky volstrekt onduidelijk. Later stelde Blavatsky ook, dat zij altijd maagd was gebleven. Een aantal auteurs buiten theosofische kringen komt op basis van onderzoek tot de conclusie, dat het hier een kind van Blavatsky zelf betreft, geboren uit een relatie met Metrovich. Blavatsky's social and political beliefs, like much else in her life, are not always consistent, though reflect what she felt she could reveal of a larger vision. The escorts accompanied her to Poti and then Kerch, intending to continue with her to Odessa. In his works, Tolstoy used the dicta from the theosophical journal Theosophischer Wegweiser. [156] Then claiming that the Masters were telepathically commanding her to head to Rajputana in the Punjab, she and Olcott headed north. [24] Terwijl plagiaat het stelen van ideeën of woorden is om deze voor eigen werk te laten doorgaan. Zij schreef in dat jaar ook de laatste hoofdstukken van De geheime leer, dat het standaardwerk in de theosofie zou worden. Op de leeftijd van zeventien jaar huwde zij in juli 1847 met Nikifor Vladimirovich Blavatsky, een man die toen 43 jaar was en vicegouverneur van de provincie Jerevan. Metrovich kwam om, maar Blavatsky behoorde tot de slechts zeventien overlevenden. [279] However, Lachman stated that her Buddhism was "highly eccentric and had little to do with the Buddhism of scholars like [Max] Müller or that of your average Buddhist". Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891) was the first person in modern times to claim contact with certain Eastern Adepts or Mahatmas. She was also humorous, vulgar, impulsive and warm-hearted, and didn't give a hoot for anyone or anything. Alleen ingewijden die ook bepaalde proeven succesvol hadden gehaald kregen toestemming de bijeenkomsten van de sectie bij te wonen. [82] She also claimed that while in Tibet, Morya and Koot Hoomi helped her develop and control her psychic powers. [305], Blavatsky was a highly controversial figure,[306] and attitudes toward her were typically polarized into extreme camps, one uncritically idolizing her as a holy guru and the other expressing complete disdain for her as a charlatan. [355] Blavatsky believed that Indian religion offered answers to problems then facing Westerners; in particular, she believed that Indian religion contained an evolutionary cosmology which complemented Darwinian evolutionary theory, and that the Indian doctrine of reincarnation met many of the moral qualms surrounding vicarious atonement and eternal damnation that preoccupied 19th-century Westerners. Namen van andere Mahatma's die brieven verzonden zijn Djual Khool, Maha Chohan en Narayan. Na de ontmoeting met Sinnett en zijn gebleken grote interesse in haar opvattingen en het werk van de Theosophical Society besloot Blavatsky een mogelijkheid te creëren waardoor Sinnett kon corresponderen met Morya en Koot Hoomi. Blavatsky kreeg de klassieke aristocratische opleiding in onder meer Frans, muziek- en dansles. herself alludes to such a connection between the two ‘books’ in the very first lines of Isis Unveiled (vol. Het zou een eindeloos karwei zijn het aantal blunders in het boek op te sommen. In 1880, she and Olcott moved to India, where the Society was allied to the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement. "[350][b] Hij zou later een belangrijke rol in de theosofische beweging spelen, een aantal boeken schrijven en is vooral bekend vanwege het veronderstelde feit, dat hij de meeste zogenaamde Mahatmabrieven ontving. Het zorgde ook voor een verwijdering tussen Olcott en Blavatsky. That was, more than anything else, the vision of the succession of root races. II, pp. De literaire productie die aan de Mahatma's werd toegeschreven was aanzienlijk. "[275] In augustus verbleef zij in Duitsland. [125] The term theosophy came from the Greek theos ("god(s)") and sophia ("wisdom"), thus meaning "god-wisdom" or "divine wisdom". Binnen de sectie werd de Innerlijke groep opgericht met zes mannelijke en zes vrouwelijke leden. [214] In 1888, Blavatsky established the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society, a group under her complete control for which admittance was restricted to those who had passed certain tests. De meerderheid van de huidige mensheid behoort in de visie van Blavatsky nog tot een subras van het vierde wortelras. [79], She claimed to have then received a message from Morya to travel to Constantinople, where he met her, and together they traveled overland to Tibet, going through Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and then into India, entering Tibet via Kashmir. [245] Lachman stated that Blavatsky exhibited what he referred to as "Russian traits – an intense devotion to spiritual truth, combined with a profound contradictory character. Lillie also analysed the Mahatma letters and asserted they had been written by Blavatsky, based on certain peculiarities of expression and spelling. Although she had hoped to call it The Veil of Isis, it would be published as Isis Unveiled. (..) Ik kan de SPR-commissie niet zuiveren van blaam voor het publiceren van dit volslagen ondeugdelijke rapport. Italics in original} It was in 1886, two years before The Secret Doctrine and five before Blavatsky's death, that the General Council of the Theosophical Society adopted as the first of the Society's three objects, "To form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color." In die artikelen handelde het vooral over westerse esoterie. According to Blavatsky, both Morya and Koot Hoomi were Kashmiris of Punjabi origin, and it was at his home that Koot Hoomi taught students of the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Get it as soon as Thu, Jan 7. De derde was dat Blavatsky de Mahatmabrieven ook zelf geschreven had. In augustus 1889 verhuisde Blavatsky naar Avenue Road 19, Regent's Park in St John's Wood, waar in 1890 ook het Europese hoofdkwartier van de beweging werd gevestigd. [112] They soon became close friends, giving each other the nicknames of "Maloney" (Olcott) and "Jack" (Blavatsky). [81], She claimed that in Tibet, she was taught an ancient, unknown language known as Senzar, and translated a number of ancient texts written in this language that were preserved by the monks of a monastery; she stated that she was, however, not permitted entry into the monastery itself. [226] There, she authored a book containing questions and corresponding answers, The Key to Theosophy. Blavatsky begon ook zelf artikelen over het onderwerp te schrijven. [240] Blavatsky preferred to be known by the acronym "HPB",[241] a sobriquet applied to her by many of her friends which was first developed by Olcott. But the transcription used by her for the Aramaic title shows clearly what she had in mind. [116] [11] Her mother was Helena Andreyevna von Hahn (Russian: Елена Андреевна Ган, 1814–1842; née Fadeyeva), a self-educated 17-year-old who was the daughter of Princess Yelena Pavlovna Dolgorukaya, a similarly self-educated aristocrat. [148] Unhappy with life in the U.S., Blavatsky decided to move to India, with Olcott agreeing to join her, securing work as a U.S. trade representative to the country. There is a nothing esoteric or secretive in Buddhism, he wrote, in fact the very opposite. In 1864, while riding in Mingrelia, Blavatsky fell from her horse and was in a coma for several months with a spinal fracture. Zij was van opvatting, dat het spiritualisme zoals dat in Noord-Amerika werd beoefend wel nuttig was als tegenwicht tegen de overheersende materialistische opvattingen, maar dat dit echte occulte kennis ontbeerde. Na een kort verblijf in Napels vestigde zij zich in Würzburg in de Ludwigstrasse[8] en woonde er later samen met gravin Constance Wachtmeister, die zij in 1884 in Londen had ontmoet. She gained an international following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy. In Isis Unveiled, she spoke well of Jesus as one who, though a "poor, unknown Jewish carpenter" and "no master of social etiquette," nonetheless became a great reformer, teaching a "sublime code of ethics," and also, like Paul and other early church fathers an "initiate," qualified to teach and practice the Ancient Wisdom in terms suitable to the time and place. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. [169] Sinnett was eager to contact the Masters himself, convincing Blavatsky to facilitate this communication, resulting in the production of over 1400 pages allegedly authored by Koot Hoomi and Morya, which came to be known as the Mahatma Letters. She also claimed that during this period she encountered a group of spiritual adepts, the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom", who sent her to Shigatse, Tibet, where they trained her to develop a deeper understanding of the synthesis of religion, philosophy, and science. The solemn and magniloquent style of these pages may well have impressed her susceptible mind. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Russisch: Елена Петровна Блаватская, Jelena Petrovna Blavatskaja), geboren als Jelena Petrovna von Hahn-Rottenstern (Jekaterinoslav, 12 augustus/ 31 juli (O.S.) [191][192] Internally, the Society was greatly damaged by the Coulomb Affair,[193] although it remained popular in India, as did Blavatsky herself. She died of influenza. After leaving the movement she said "She taught me one great lesson. Volgens Blavatsky was het Boek van Dzyan het eerste deel van de Commentaren op de Boeken van Kiu-te. Begin 1861 kreeg Blavatsky de zorg voor een kind met de naam Yuri. In dat jaar zou in Londen haar eerste ontmoeting plaatsvinden met Mahatma Morya, de personificatie van de mysterieuze Indiër uit haar visioenen.