Classical geopolitics emerged from traditional geopolitics, which in its turn emerged from political geography and classical geopolitics as theory of international relations, appeared among the realist family of international relations theorists, together with political realism later was structural realism, and other types of realistic way of thinking. These studies have been paralleled by a revived interest in statecraft in general and this body of work has been presented as critical geopolitics. According to Cohen (2003, p. 12), geopolitics is defined as ‘the analysis of the interaction between, on the one hand, geographical settings and perspectives and, on the other, political processes…. It was with disbelief and shock that people around the world saw footage of the terrorist attacks in the US on on September 11, 2001 when the planes-turned-missiles slammed into the World Trade Center towers and damaged the Pentagon. Geopolitics is sometimes defined as the geographical dimensions of power (and hence seen as synonymous with political geography). Often, to secure a sale, the manufacture of the arms also goes to the target nation. Michel Biron, in A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability, 2020. Read “The Middle East conflict—a brief background” to learn more. Internally, movements towards moderate policies and democratic values are gaining traction, but not with hardliners in power trying to hold on. Those countries are then demonized to us so we purchase more. That means a predominant orientation on the (implicit) geopolitical content of texts and messages of religious leaders and movements particularly among Christians and Muslims. Geopolitics definition: Geopolitics is concerned with politics and the way that geography affects politics or... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Bookmark or share this with others using some popular social bookmarking web sites: Copy/paste the following HTML code to your page: Anup Shah, Geopolitics, Global Issues, Updated: October 07, 2013. Geopolitics addresses the consequences of this interaction. Proposals are growing stronger for an arms trade treaty. He regarded geography as a synthesis of the natural and human world in which the nature and distribution of human activities would be explicated. Some of this thinking informed and influenced the practice of war and geographers have assessed the intellectual, social, and cultural roots of these thinkers. This textbook is written specifically as a guide to this class – it will complement all the lecture notes as well as providing additional explanation and exemplification. This discursive structure is necessary to the maintenance of the naturalization of the realist position as the explanation of international politics. Read “Arms Trade—a major cause of suffering” to learn more. From the beginning of the last century, when the term ‘geopolitics’ itself was first used by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén, the range of explanations widely extends. These constitute theoretical chapters rather than a sound classification of political events in the world. A state, he claimed, had both physical and human geographical components and although the state was a biological entity, it was also a spatial entity. Drawing upon the Western philosophical tradition of ordering the world through conceptual binaries, Said argued that Europe’s representation of the Orient as other, was used to reflect back a positive image of the self. The revival is examined in terms of both language and substance, and the reasons for the revival are explored. Ratzel’s approach was to apply the knowledge he had gained in the natural sciences to understanding human activity and thus to produce a theory of how the geographical dimensions of a state influenced state behavior. However, the new republics around the Caspian Sea are not democracies and could become unstable during future transfers of power or revolutions or ethnic strife. Critical geopolitical analysis of security discourse demonstrates that it is difference that threatens the states so that the essential moment of geopolitics is the division of space into ‘our’ place and ‘their’ place; its political function being to incorporate and regulate ‘us’ or ‘the same’ by distinguishing ‘us’ from ‘them’, ‘the same’ from ‘the other’. Such interpretations may play a role in a geopolitical context but in Wright's essays this extension was never made. The history of the term ‘geopolitics’ can date back to 1899 when the term was first coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellen. In an article recently published in the journal ... geopolitics as a popular science aimed … However, the Gulf remains an unstable place, subject to revolutions and regional wars, as the Gulf War of 1990–1991 demonstrated when Iraq attacked and annexed Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia. These texts ‘preceded’ experience, so empirical evidence was included but fitted into the categories that were already constructed. They include the British geographer, Halford Mackinder; the American, Isaiah Bowman; and the German, Karl Haushofer. The globalization of the world oil market is widening the context of international oil security in the future. A religion may also offer its own normative arguments about geographical arrangements and may in this way act as a kind of geopolitical ‘theory’ based on supernatural rather than natural forces. Underlying the interests in the area are potentially vast oil, gas and other resources, as well as the opening up of lucrative passages for trade and economic activity as climate change reduces the amount of ice in the region. The US Army maintain that the school was set up to preserve democracy. In so doing, he was deploying the vocabulary of evolutionary theory to account for changes in the social and political world. Human Rights groups have likewise criticized the Israeli forces. Geopolitics, Social Darwinism, State Survival, and “Lebensraum” These histories serve as a simplified starting point for understanding geopolitics, and the types of influences that are embedded in the concept. These civilizations are portrayed as antagonistic. This kind of geographical contestation can be intensified in specific places if the latter are of vital importance to one or more stakeholders concerned. From the invasion of the Moors to the secessionist movement in Catalonia, Stratfor analysts Mark Fleming-Williams and Emily Hawthorne discuss the history of constraints facing this southern European nation, how it has responded throughout time and what new opportunities the future holds for Spain. Geopolitics, Third Edition by Colin Flint, published by Routledge in 2017 (ISBN 978-1-138-19216-4 for the paperback). In recent years, global military expenditure has increased again and is now comparable to Cold War levels. Read “Control of Resources; Supporting Dictators, Rise of Terrorism” to learn more. There's not a politician out there who doesn't speak subjective desire. While some countries are no doubt using this to win some diplomatic points, there has been an increase in tension with the US and other regions around the world. The growing availability of small arms has been a major factor in the increase in the number of conflicts. It appears that the United States, as the world's remaining superpower, is the only country that can play this role. Attempts at brokering ceasefires have predictably failed. Geopolitics – that is nothing ‘real’. Being able to think in those types of complex terms becomes really useful in geopolitics and in playing it around. Military aid may even be given to opposition groups to fight nations, which was commonplace during the Cold War where even dictatorships were tolerated or supported in order to achieve geopolitical aims. Another 5,000 were injured including some 1,800 children and 800 women. The 1993 Oslo Accord, whereby Israel recognized the PLO and gave them limited autonomy in return for peace and an end to Palestinian claims on Israeli territory, has been largely criticized as a one-sided accord, that benefits only Israel, not the Palestinian people. Throughout the 1990s, a coalition of numerous non-governmental organizations, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), campaigned successfully to prohibit the use of landmines. This page provides coverage of recent events via Inter Press Service’s news feed. Realism is based around a binary of inside (domestic, state) and outside (chaotic, international). As well as its role in the analysis of global and regional strategy, geopolitics has entered popular language and political discourse. Propaganda comes in various forms, often via manipulative advertising campaigns. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, or Arab-Israeli conflict, or whatever name it goes by, is perhaps one of the more sensitive issues that is discussed. Most experts forecast an additional population growth for the next decades and, perhaps a stabilization at a level of 10 billion people in round figures. Sharon had been accused of massacres in his military days and is well known to all. The protest movements and differential perspectives gathered under the term anti-geopolitics do not oppose geopolitics per se, but rather dominant geopolitical practices, discourses, and representations. Read “The US Nuclear Superpower” to learn more. Read “The Bush Doctrine of Pre-emptive Strikes; A Global Pax Americana” to learn more. To compete and thrive in the 21st century, democracies, and the United States in particular, must develop new national security and economic strategies that address the geopolitics of information. Read “Star Wars; Phantom Menace or New Hope?” to learn more. This reception may partly be explained by the fact that the prefix anti suggests a dichotomy to geopolitics that appears to be rather unhelpful. Leaving Iraq aside as a special case, there is some question whether these sanctions are working effectively if they are not multilateral and accepted by other countries. New publications reflected two perspectives. Read “Crisis in East Timor” to learn more. The West is everything that the rest is not. Rooted in poststructuralism as well as various versions of postcolonial scholarship, critical geopolitical inquiry is, at its core, concerned with the operation, interaction, and contestation of geopolitical discourses. Geopolitics is defined as a discursive practice by which intellectuals of statecraft ‘spatialize’ international politics and represent it as a ‘world’ characterized by particular types of places, peoples and dramas. The guided-missile destroyer USS Lassen sailed within 12 nautical miles of reclaimed-land islands in October 2015. What exactly is geopolitics, though? The study of geopolitics has always pivoted on the state as the main power agency in the world. People are driven out and murdered to serve geopolitics. 2021. Read “Palestine and Israel Introduction” to learn more. This goes counter to the United Nations Outer Space Treaty that provides the legal framework for the use of space for peaceful purposes. While retreating sea ice may open up shipping routes, the regions ability to reflect sunlight back into space would diminish, further increasing climate change effects. In the classical deterministic geopolitics that prevailed from the 1890s until 1945 population was introduced in terms of a series of differences between dominant states with respect to their need for territorial expansion (known in German as Lebensraum): racial hierarchies, comparative fecundity, population vitality (a euphemism linking population growth with the need for territorial expansi… By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Both geographical settings and political processes are dynamic, and each influences and is influenced by the other. While some critical geopolitics has sought to challenge the state-centrism of conventional accounts by highlighting the role of actors ‘above’ and ‘below’ the state, and those actors and issues which transcend the boundaries of states (such as environmental security), it has also sought to highlight this role of realism and the exclusion of difference in the construction of identity. The US is planning to develop weapons for and ensure military dominance in space. The past drive for fossil fuel energy has led to wars, overthrow of democratically elected leaders, and puppet governments and dictatorships. Violence and Palestinian Uprising in 2000” to learn more. This stemmed from the fact that geopolitics, that is, the analysis of the relationships between geography and the practice of statecraft, had become strongly associated with some of the key thinking in the execution of policy in Nazi Germany. However, numerous issues turned up, including. Read “International Criminal Court” to learn more. In this division, formal geopolitics denotes formal highbrow analysis, practical geopolitics refers to the reasoning of politicians, pundits and specialized journals, and popular geopolitics encompasses the ways in which world politics is spatialized in popular culture. Huntington's is by far the most geopolitical of all studies about the politics of religion appearing after 1990 because it extends the familiar idea of strategic blocs (like those of the Cold War) to the world of civilizations, essentially conceived as religions. Read “Middle East and North Africa Unrest” to learn more. If one does not understand that process, one is almost certain to write a history in which, unbeknownst to the author, the background and documentation have been carefully created to give Managers of State the freedom to suppress other people’s rights and transfer their wealth to the imperial center through unequal trades. Into 2006, for example, some 100 people per day have been dying from suicide bombings, roadside attacks, and other aspects of sectarian violence, and what looks increasingly like civil war; The geopolitical aftermath of the attacks, which will have a long lasting effect, especially as Iran and Syria start to gain more influence. The build-up to the war on Iraq up to 2003 led to immense media coverage and propaganda. No wonder that there is no solid core of knowledge in this respect, geopolitics seems to be fluid, runs through your fingers. Concerns about a crackdown on civil rights in the wake of the so-called war on terror have been expressed for a long time, and these revelations seem to be confirming some of those fears. The study partly covers issues of geopolitical interest. Critical geopolitical analysis has shown how the presence of external threats has been used within geopolitical discourse to disciplining domestic dissent. In arguing this, critical geopolitics suggests that geopolitics is not something simply linked to describing or predicting the shape of international politics, but is central to the ways in which identity is formed and maintained in modern societies. The secular view was dominant when most governments in the world were either European, offspring from Europe (Americas, Australia) or dominated by a European colonizer (Africa, Asia). Bush and Blair’s stance give the appearance of a green light to Israel to continue its wave of attacks in order to route out Hezbollah, but they too have received criticism from around the world for this. What are the challenges posed in a democratic system and are established safeguards helping to strengthen democracy or are their forces successfully weakening it? To print all information (e.g. The recent US Freedom of Navigation Operations (FONOP) program at the South China Sea is another case of concern (Box 11.2). That role is strengthened but has also become more complicated following the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq in 2003. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. It is in the former area of geopolitics that historical geographers have been interested and work has concentrated on the causes of war, the role of war within a wider system of international diplomatic and strategic affairs, and the influences of the geographical environment in the conduct of war. Some protests have become revolutions as governments such as those in Tunisia and Egypt have been overthrown. There are 90 territories and 19 oceans that up to six teams can compete and coexis Maps are also provided. Many types of valuable data are easily obtained, transported and used to influence large groups of the population. Some governments spend more on military expenditure than on social development, communications infrastructure and health combined. More recently, Iran was described as being part of an “axis of evil” by US President George Bush, as part of his “war on terror.”. Central to his thesis was the claim that the state was an organism, similar to those found in the natural world, and that its behavior could be best understood in these terms. In modern conflicts over 80 percent of all casualties have been civilian. Military aid can be controversial. “Bad ideas flourish because they are in the interest of powerful groups” — Paul Krugman, Ethiopia: Amidst hostilities in Tigray, humanitarian situation remains ‘dire’, A Post-COVID-19 Recovery will not be Possible if Water, Sanitation & Hygiene are not High on the Agenda, Clashes in Myanmar displace thousands, UN humanitarian office reports,,, Small Arms—they cause 90% of civilian casualties, The US and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Militarization and Weaponization of Outer Space, International Criminal Court: Introduction, Middle East: A 1300 Year Struggle for Control of Resources, Control of Resources; Supporting Dictators, Rise of Terrorism, Iraq—2003 onwards; War, Aftermath and Post-Saddam, Iraq—Post 1991 Persian Gulf War/Sanctions, The Middle East conflict—a brief background, Oslo Dead? This section provides a series of articles looking at issues during the period of UN-sanctions that were mostly enforced by the US and UK. So, an extensive discussion of religion in the context of geopolitics deals with three issues: religion and nationalism; religion as transnational force; and religion and territorial conflict. A strand of this is exploring the geopolitical discourses used by governments and political leaders. The construction of otherness simultaneously presents a normative image of identity to be imposed on national citizens. As seen throughout history, empires have sought to expand territorially, politically, economically and even culturally. The collection of essays Religion: the missing dimension in statecraft is particularly characteristic of this perspective. Given the widespread collection of information, apparently from central servers of major Internet companies and from other core servers that form part of the Internet backbone, activities of millions (if not billions) of citizens have been caught up in a dragnet style surveillance problem called PRISM, even when the communication has nothing to do with terrorism. This article looks at the rising violence, and also introduces other articles looking at media reporting, how Palestinian, Israeli, US, and UN leadership reacted, and at the quality of the media reporting. The most important aspects of the network are its existence beyond territory and its ability to mix both analog (real life) and digital realities. Read “Small Arms—they cause 90% of civilian casualties” to learn more. The US is also risking abrogation of the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty by continuing with its Star Wars, or national missile defense system. Hundreds and thousands of people have been slaughtered from a number of conflicts and civil wars. Some believe in strong prohibition enforcement. The ways in which events such as the Vietnam War have been framed by filmmakers or the worldview refracted through publications such as Reader's Digest are examples of the ways in which people, places, and events are represented and through which particular ideologies (often using simplistic representations of ‘good guys’ and ‘bad guys’ and particular constructions of concepts such as ‘freedom’) are disseminated and reproduced. 45 articles on “Geopolitics” and 10 related issues: Arms Trade—a major cause of suffering Last updated Sunday, June 30, 2013. Recent work of geographers has been for the greater part inspired by the critical geopolitics perspective. The global illicit drugs market is enormous, estimated at some $320 billion. Religions create a bond of solidarity between people and therefore can have an impact in the sphere of power and politics. Geopolitics is traditionally the study of how political power is reinforced or undermined by geographical arrangements (boundaries, coalitions, spatial networks, natural resources, etc.). The attractiveness of communism in some newly independent states has also been explained from its neat fit to the socioreligious order of society (like Brahmanism in India). Others have not got that far but have sometimes been peaceful, other times met with very brutal repression. A combination of the global financial crisis, rising costs of living, high unemployment — especially of educated youth, frustration from decades of living under authoritarian and corrupt regimes, various document leaks revealing more details about how governments around the world are dealing and viewing each other, have all combined in different ways in various countries, leading to a wave of rising anger. Max Weber proposed one of the first classifications of political leaders based on the type of power legitimacy leader: • the traditional leader bases his authority on the belief in the sacredness of traditions and passes it by inheritance. Most of these sales (something like 75%) are to developing countries. While every nation has the right and the need to ensure its security, in these changing times, arms requirements and procurement processes may need to change too. Hao is not an unknown mapmaker, as he also designed China’s modern map which includes the controversial nine-dash-line. Geopolitics is traditionally the study of how political power is reinforced or undermined by geographical arrangements (boundaries, coalitions, spatial networks, natural resources, etc. The main role of the state is to provide security, protecting the domestic space and its citizens from the threat of the chaotic international. geopolitics: 1 n the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state Types: geostrategy the branch of geopolitics dealing with strategy Type of: government , political science , politics the study of government of states and other political units Europe and Japan are much more dependent on imports of Gulf oil than is the United States. These mixed messages make the future for Libya uncertain. The pivotal role of the state in geopolitical writing suggests that nation building and its reverse, transnationalism, cannot be ignored. In fact, they themselves are geopolitical. TYPES OF BOUNDARIES –GEOMETRIC ... Concept of politics and geopolitics has really changed in last 50 years –Was an “us” vs. “them” environment during Cold War –Today, if anything is “them”, its not the Soviet Union---it’s the concept of terrorism. The construction of ‘otherness’, and particularly the sense of danger that this presents, have implications for the practice of domestic affairs in addition to foreign policy. Oil interacts with foreign policy in other ways. The development of a more critical geopolitics through the work of people like Gearóid Ó Tuathail and Simon Dalby has created a more politically challenging perspective on global political issues. Smith and the Institute for Economic Democracy, part of chapter 14 from the book, The World’s Wasted Wealth II, (Institute for Economic Democracy, 1994) has been reproduced here. Only after one understands how freedom and rights are being suppressed by the managers of imperial states — even as they preach peace, freedom, justice, rights, and majority rule to their citizens to maintain their beliefs in the morality of their society, and thus assure the continued support of the masses for inflicting such violence upon the world — can one write honest history. Read “Surveillance State: NSA Spying and more” to learn more. However, the implications are more international than national, except for the United States, for which the two are intertwined. Read “Military Propaganda for Arms Sales” to learn more. From a democracy in the 1950s, Iran seems to have moved backwards, from an authoritarian regime (backed by Britain and the US) that overthrew the democratic one, to a religious fundamentalist regime toppling the authoritarian one and taking an anti-US stance. If the strait were closed by terrorists or military action, tankers would be required to add considerable distance and expense to deliver their oil, which would immediately raise freight rates worldwide. This article explores why Africa has been largely ignored and what some of the root causes of the problems are. The 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council (US, Russia, France, United Kingdom and China), together with Germany and Italy account for around 85% of the arms sold between 2004 and 2011.